Democratisation and the Emergence of a Responsive Party System in Latin America An important determinant for the successful democratisation is the emergence of a party system that is responsive to the citizenry. Because many parties in Latin America and elsewhere use clientelistic appeals to mobilise voters, they fail to represent the programmatic preferences of their electorate, which would be one of democracy’s most central goals according to democratic theory. The point of departure of this SNF-funded project is the failure of the major theories of democratisation to explain differences in the consolidation of democracy across Latin America. The project combines comparative historical analysis and quantitative statistical methods to empirically analyse this process. Our hypothesis is that the way conflicts were mobilised early on affects the long-term balance between clientelistic and programmatic mobilisation strategies employed by parties. We test these predictions in a quantitative analysis of contemporary linkage practices in twelve Latin American countries. We analyse these modes of party mobilisation and the quality of representation by combining data on the programmatic position of parties with data on the preferences of voters, measuring the congruence between parties and voters at various points in time between the mid-1990s and the 2000s. On the one hand, the project engages in comparative historical analysis to develop a cleavage account of party system formation in a context where it has not been widely used. On the other hand, it combines mass-level surveys and expert survey data on party positions and linkage practices to assess the limits of path dependency and the possibilities of political agency in shaping political representation. Responsible: Prof. Daniele Caramani, Ph.D. in collaboration with Simon Bornschier, Ph.D. Deliverables: Bornschier, Simon (2013): Trayectorias históricas y responsiveness del sistema de partidos en siete países de América Latina. América Latina Hoy, 65 (diciembre), pp. 45-77.