Research Research conducted at the chair of Comparative Politics is empirical, cross-national, longitudinal and based on a wealth of different types of data. For the complete publication lists please see here. Current research projects The Europeanization of Electoral Politics This project analyses the integration of European electorates and party systems, and the formation of a supra-national cleavage constellation in the European Union. It is an empirical research on the “Europeanisation” of electorates and party systems convergence: (1) the ideological integration among parties of the same family in Europe, (2) the homogeneity of voting behaviour and common changes (uniform swings), (3) the location of sources for electoral behaviour (local, national or EU level), (4) the degree of distinctiveness of the EU party system with respect to national party systems and their alignments. The research covers 30 countries since the first direct election to the EP in 1979. The project is based on three types of data: (1) aggregate data, (2) survey data and (3) party manifestos. Funding: Swiss National Science Foundation and NCCR Deliverables: Book project and journal publications: - Caramani, Daniele (2012). The Europeanization of Electoral Politics: An Analysis of Converging Voting Distributions in 30 European Party Systems, 1970–2008. Party Politics 18(6): 803–23. - Camia, Valeria and Daniele Caramani (2011). Family Meetings: Ideological Convergence Within Party Families Across Europe, 1945–2009. Comparative European Politics 10(1): 48–85 - Caramani, Daniele (2011). Electoral Waves: An Analysis of Trends, Spread and Swings Across 20 West European Countries 1970–2008. Representation 47(2): 137–60. - Caramani, Daniele (2006). Is There a European Electorate and What Does It Look Like? Evidence from Electoral Volatility Measures, 1976–2004. West European Politics 29(1): 1–27. Constituency-Level Elections Archive (CLEA) The central aim of the CLEA project is to produce a repository of detailed results – including votes received by each candidate/party, total votes cast, number of eligible voters, and seat figures – at a constituency level for the lower house legislative elections that have been conducted around the world. The goal is to preserve and consolidate these data in one comprehensive and reliable reference resource that is ready for analysis and publicly available at no cost. This public good is expected to be of use to a range of audiences for research, education, policy-making and evaluation. The project is carried out in collaboration with Ken Kollman and Allen Hicken (University of Michigan), and David Backer (William & Mary). Funding: US National Science Foundation, University of Michigan, Institute of Political Science Deliverables: www.electiondataarchive.org Comparative Politics textbook (Oxford University Press) "Comparative Politics" is an exciting and authoritative introduction to one of the most important fields of political science. International experts explore the methods and theories of comparative politics, as well as the institutions, actors, processes, and policies at the heart of political systems around the world. Aolongside discussion of the key themes, students are presented with a wealth of empirical data to demonstrate similarities and idfferences in practice, and to encourage research. By focussing on industrial and developing countries, together with political bodies and systems above and blow the level of the nation state, this textbook provides a fully comprehensive account of the discipline. The third edition is forthcoming in January 2014. Funding: Institute of Political Science Deliverables: Caramani, Daniele (ed.), Comparative Politics: Oxford University Press (2011) with Online Resource Centre providing comparative data, test banks, web links, PowerPoint slides, country profiles, glossary, review questions, etc. PartyRep: MP survey in European national and regional parliaments International comparative project to which universities from most European countries participate consisting of a comparative national and regional MP survey in Europe. The Institute of Political Science is responsible for the survey of all MPs at federal and cantonal level in Switzerland. Four themes are studied. First, the definition of constituencies and how MPs define them. Second, how interests of (un)organised groups are defined in the representation process. Third, multi-level environment, how members of regional and national parliaments interact and compete. Fourth how electoral rules affect the role orientations that MPs choose from. Funding: Inter University Attraction Pole (Universities of Brussels, Antwerp, Leuven and Leiden), Institute of Political Science Deliverables: - Caramani, Daniele, Celis, Karen and Bram Wauters. The Representation of Old and New Cleavages in Europe. In Deschouwer, K. and S. Depauw (eds.). Political Representation in the Twenty-First Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press. - Deschouwer, K. and S. Depauw (eds.). Political Representation in the Twenty-First Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press. - Eugster, Beatrice and Oliver Strijbis. 2011. The Swiss: A Political Nation? Swiss Political Science Review 17(4): 394-416. The Nationalisation of Central and East European Countries Collaboration with Ingrid van Biezen, Leiden University, The Netherlands. An ECPR workshop organised in 2008 in Rennes with Ingrid van Biezen will analyse processes of nationalisation since 1989 in Central and East European countries (including Russia, Bulgaria and Romania) after the break-down of communism. Papers will include country case studies with two introductory chapters: one analysing common trends in Central and Eastern Europe and the other comparing these trends with Western Europe. The papers will lead to an edited volume to be submitted to Cambridge University Press. Inclusion and Transnational Voting Rights Collaboration with Florian Grotz of the Leuphana University, Lüneburg. Due to the ongoing processes of globalization and supranational integration, traditional core elements of democratic suffrage have been “on the move” in the recent past. More specifically, many countries have enfranchised resident aliens and/or non-resident citizens, thus abolishing citizenship and residency as necessary requirements for the individual right to vote in democratic nation-states. Although this kind of suffrage extension has been a transnational tendency since quite a while there is considerable variation in its timing, scope and levels of application (national – regional – local). Furthermore, the political consequences of resident aliens and non-resident citizens participating in general elections obviously differ from country to country. The project aims at investigating empirically the cross-country differences and estimating the impact of different provisions for immigrants' and expatriates' voting rights on the quality of representation. Funding: Global Democratic Governance research area Deliverables: - Caramani, D. and O. Strijbis (2012). Discrepant Electorates: The Inclusiveness of Electorates and Its Impact on the Representation of Citizens. Parliamentary Affairs 65(1): 1–21. - Organization of workshop on "Political Rights in the Age of Globalization", September 18.19, University of St. Gallen, with view to publising a special journal issue. Democratisation and the Emergence of a Responsive Party System in Latin America Collaboration with Simon Bornschier. Analysis of the emergence of responsive party systems in 12 countries. The project combines comparative historical analysis and quantitative statistical methods to empirically analyse processes of democratisation in Latin America. The hypothesis is that the way conflicts were mobilised early on affects the long-term balance between clientelistic and programmatic mobilisation strategies employed by parties. Funding: Swiss National Science Foundation. Deliverables: Bornschier, S. (2012). Cleavages and Actors in the Formation of a New Cultural Divide: Why a Right-Wing Populist Party Emerged in France and not in Germany. European Political Science Review 4(1), 121-145. A Historical and Computerised Electoral Atlas of Europe The project aims to produce an electoral atlas of elections for 30 countries in Europe. Maps include turnout and voting support for the main parties across Europe from all party families. The maps are historical including elections that took place in the 19th century. Territorial units are constituencies. The goal is to produce a printed atlas accompanied by CD-ROM or webpage based on GIS cartography in order to produce dynamic configurations of territorial patters of voting support over time to assess the impact of industrialisation, urbanisation, migrations and boundary changes. Deliverables: planned Historical Electoral Atlas of Europe with GIS. _________________________________________________________ Completed projects Introduction to the Comparative Method A systematic and concise introduction to why, what, and how to compare. It provides basic guidelines for comparative research by addressing all key methodological issues: case selection (type and number of units of analysis and selection bias), comparability, taxonomical treatment, and research design. The principles of comparative control are dealt with by stressing the logical foundations of comparative research: the role of classification, Mill’s methods, necessary and sufficient conditions, and Boolean algebra dealing with binary information. Background: undergraduate and graduate courses in Mannheim and Florence. Completion: 2007. Deliverables: Caramani, Daniele (2009). Introduction to the Comparative Method With Boolean Algebra. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage (Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences). Challenges to Consensual Politics Differentialist identities, multi-level consociational accommodation, and corporatist intermediation are typical features of "consensual politics," and European integration adds further to this complexity. This is challenged by anti-elitist, sentiments, local identities, and Euro-sceptic attitudes. The project examines the defensive reaction of populist parties to the threats of open borders (multi-culturalism and cheap labour) and elite negotiations (at all levels of governance). Protest attitudes favour proposals for an anti-assimilationist and labour protective "Fortress" and a religiously-based "Europe of the People." Hypotheses concern a potential cleavage in the European party system through alliances of "losers of integration" cutting across left–right and overlapping with ethnic, centre–periphery, religious, and rural–urban factors. The empirical analysis focuses on Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Slovenia, and Switzerland. In collaboration with Yves Mény, European University Institute. Background: Two conferences organised at the European University Institute in 2003 and 2004, and ECPR Workshop (Edinburgh 2003) I organised on "Cultural Diversity and European Integration". Completion: 2005. Deliverables: - Caramani, D. and Wagemann, C. (2005). A Transnational Political Culture? The Alpine Region and its Relationship to European Integration. German Politics 14(1): 74–94. - Caramani, D. and Mény, Y., eds. (2005). Challenges to Consensual Politics: Democracy, Identity, and Populist Protest in the Alpine Region. Brussels: P.I.E.-Peter Lang (Federalism & Regionalism, no. 6). - Caramani, D. (2009). Alpine Europe. In: Dyson, K. and A. Sepos (eds.), Whose Europe? The Politics of Differentiated Integration. London: Palgrave. The Nationalization of Politics Comparative and long-term study on the macro-historical process of the nationalisation of politics. Using a large wealth of newly collected and unexplored data on single constituencies in 17 West European countries, the analysis reconstructs the territorial structures of electoral participation and support for political parties, as well as their evolution since the mid-nineteenth century from highly territorialised politics of early competitive elections toward nation-wide alignments. It provides a multi-pronged empirical analysis through time, across countries, and between party families. The inclusion of all the most importan social and political cleavages (class, state–church, rural–urban, ethno-linguistic, and religious) allows to assess the nationalising impact of the left–right dimension that emerged from the National and Industrial Revolutions, and the resistance of pre-industrial cultural and centre-periphery factors to national integration. State formation, institutional, and socio-political mobilisation models are combined with actor-centered explanatory factors to account for key evolutionary steps and differences between national types of territorial configurations of the vote. Deliverables: - Caramani, D. (2004). The Nationalization of Politics: The Formation of National Electorates and Party Systems in Western Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics), xviii–347 pp. [publication in cloth and paperback]. Winner of the “XIth Stein Rokkan Prize in Comparative Social Science Research." - Caramani, D. (2005). The Formation of National Party Systems in Europe: A Comparative-Historical Analysis. Scandinavian Political Studies 28(4): 295–322. - Caramani, D. (2005). L’Évolution de la Territorialité des Clivages en Europe: Une Étude Comparative Depuis la Moitié du XIXème Siècle. Revue Internationale de Politique Comparée 12(1): 47–76 (Issue on “Les Clivages en Politique”). - Caramani, D. (2005) (forthcoming). Die Entstehung nationaler Parteiensysteme in Europa: eine historisch-vergleichende Analyse, pp. 1–27 in: Schöning, M. and S. Seidendorf (eds.), Reichweiten der Verständigung: Intellektuellen-diskurse zwischen Nation und Europa. Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag C. Winter (Beiträge zur neueren Literaturgeschichte). - Caramani, D. (2003). The End of Silent Elections: The Birth of Electoral Competition, 1832–1915. Party Politics 9(4): 411–43. - Caramani, D. (2002). The Measurement of Territorial Homogeneity: A Test on Comparative Electoral Data since 1832. Florence: EUI Working Papers (RSC 2002/26). - Caramani, D. (1996). The Nationalisation of Electoral Politics: Conceptual Reconstruction and Review of the Literature. West European Politics 19(2): 205–24. - Caramani, D. (1994). La Nazionalizzazione del Voto. Rivista Italiana di Scienza Politica 24(2): 237–85. - A panel on the nationalisation of politics in Central and Eastern Europe since 1989 has been organised at the Budapest ECPR general conference to compare it with processes in Western Europe analysed in The Nationalization of Politics (CUP, 2004). Stein Rokkan's Work Presentation and interpretation of Stein Rokkan's theoretical contribution. Deliverables: - Caramani, D. (2011). Stein Rokkan, in: Bull, M. et al. (eds.). Masters of Political Science (volume 2). London: Routledge/ECPR series. - Caramani, D. (2010). Rokkan, Stein, in: Kurian, G. (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Political Science. Washington, DC: CQ Press. Translation from English into Italian of Rokkan, S. (1999), State Formation, Nation-Building, and Mass Politics in Europe: The Theory of Stein Rokkan. Based on his Collected Works (edited by P. Flora et al.) Oxford: Oxford University Press. Collaboration with the University of Mannheim. Completion: 2002. Rokkan, S. (2002). Stato, Nazione e Democrazia in Europa. Bologna: Il Mulino. - See also my presentation of the book in Rivista Italiana di Scienza Politica 30(3): 586–88. Elections in Western Europe since 1815 This standardised collection of general election results at the level of single constituencies for 18 Western European countries since the nineteenth century, accompanied by a thorough documentation. The handbook is divided into three parts. In Part I (Elections in Comparison) three historical/comparative chapters describe the mechanics of electoral laws, the institutional development of elections, and the territorial structuring of the vote in Europe. In Part II (Country Chapters) the 18 chapters present the development of the electoral law since 1815. Systematic synopses include information on the dates and types of elections, the evolution of political parties and party systems, the possibilies of aggregating election results to match administrative/socio-economic data, and the constituencies. Tables present results of general elections by constituencies. Part III (Appendices) includes the guidelines for the use of the data on CD-ROM, a comment of the evolution of election statistics since the nineteenth century as well as electronic data archives. The CD-ROM presents the collection of results made machine readable according to standard rules across countries and time periods. It provides an important source of data for secondary analyses. For each country results are presented in absolute figures and percentage distribution by parties and constituencies. Information is available in different programmes (Excel, SPSS, and SAS) and structures for analysing data, viewing election results, and building time series. Collaboration with MZES, University of Mannheim. Data collection for The Nationalisation of Politics made available to the scientific community. Completion: 1999. Deliverables: - Caramani, D. (2000) (re-printed with new cover 2004). Elections in Western Europe since 1815: Electoral Results by Constituencies [Supplemented with CD-ROM]. London-New York: Palgrave, xxiv–1090 pp. - Caramani, D. (1996). The “Project on Comparative European Electoral History: 1830-1995:” A Computerised Data Handbook. Swiss Political Science Review 2(1): 141–150. - Caramani, D. (1996). The “Project on Comparative European Electoral History: 1830-1995”. A Computerised Data Handbook, pp. 15–18. Eurodata Newsletters (EURODATA Research Archive of the Mannheim Centre of European Social Research) 4(Autumn). - Caramani, D. (2000). Elections in Western Europe since 1815. EUI Review Spring: 17–18. Italian Elections Study Electoral analysis of legislative elections in the monographic issues of the Rivista Italiana di Scienza Politica edited by Stefano Bartolini and Roberto D’Alimonte. In collaboration with Stefano Bartolini (European University Institute) and Roberto D'Alimonte (University of Florence). Completion: Election years, so far: 1994, 1996, 2001. Next: 2006. Deliverables: - Caramani, D. and Legnante, G. (2002). Partecipazione Elettorale e Astensionismo, pp. 131–63 in: D’Alimonte, R., Bartolini, S. (eds.). Maggioritario Finalmente? La Transizione Elettorale 1994–2001. Bologna: Il Mulino. - Caramani, D. (1997). La Partecipazione Elettorale: Gli Effetti della Competizione Maggioritaria, pp. 137–60 in: D’Alimonte, R., Bartolini, S. (eds.). Maggioritario per Caso: Le Elezioni Politiche del 1996. Bologna: Il Mulino. - Caramani, D. (1996). La Partecipazione Elettorale: Gli Effetti della Competizione Maggioritaria. Rivista Italiana di Scienza Politica 26(3): 585–609. Parties and Party Systems in Europe: A Bibliography A complete bibliography has been compiled for all titles on European parties and party systems published in the world in all languages. Each title has been translated into English and computerised according to the usual bibliographical keys and according to 16 topics, 13 party families, the country treated, the type of study (case-study, comparative work, etc.), the publishing country, the publishing language, and the type of publication (article, monograph, chapter in edited book, working paper, etc.). The bibliography includes around 11,500 items and is stored on a CD-ROM. The article published in the EJPR presents part of the thorough quantitative analysis of the literature and its evolution since 1945 included in the book and CD-ROM. In collaboration with Stefano Bartolini (European University Institute) and Simon Hug (University of Geneva). Project initiated by Hans Daalder end 1970s. Deliverables: - Bartolini, S., Caramani, D., and Hug, S. (1998). Parties and Party Systems: A Bibliographic Guide to the Literature on Parties and Party Systems in Europe since 1945 on CD-ROM [Supplemented with booklet]. London: Sage, 88 pp. - Caramani, D. and Hug, S. (1998). The Literature on European Parties and Party Systems since 1945: A Quantitative Analysis. European Journal of Political Research 33(4): 497–524. - Bartolini, S., Caramani, D., and Hug, S. (1997), A Bibliography on Parties and Party Systems in Europe since 1945, pp. 18–21. Eurodata Newsletters (EURODATA Research Archive of the Mannheim Centre of European Social Research) 6 (Autumn). Swiss Direct Democracy Study In collaboration with Hanspeter Kriesi (University of Geneva). Several empirical researches: (1) electoral anaysis of the Swiss legislative elections for the electoral information section in Electoral Studies; (2) analysis of discourse and contents on the presentation by media of the Gulf War; (3) statistical and survey analysis on the referenda in Switzerland in 1980–92; (4) Statistical and survey analysis of the Swiss referenda of 1992 and 1993. Deliverables: - Caramani, D., Kriesi, H. et al. (1994), Analyses VOX-Votations du 26 septembre 1993. Zurich: GfS-Institut de Recherche, publ. n. 50. - Caramani, D., Kriesi, H. et al. (1992), Analyses VOX-Votations du 16 février 1992. Zurich: GfS-Institut de Recherche, Publ. n. 44. - Caramani, D. (1993). La Perception de l’Impact des Votations Fédérales, pp. 77–98 in: Kriesi, H. (ed.), Citoyenneté et Démocratie Directe. Zürich: Seismo.